Enhancement

Human enhancement

Biomedical technologies, such as drugs and surgical techniques, can increasingly be used not only to combat disease, but also to augment the capacities of normal, healthy individuals, a practice commonly referred to as biomedical enhancement. The best-established examples of biomedical enhancement are cosmetic surgery and doping in sports. But most recent scientific attention and ethical debate focuses on extending lifespan, lifting mood, and augmenting intellectual capacities. A number of drugs used to treat narcolepsy and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder have already been shown to have small enhancing effects on attention and memory in normal individuals, and there are range of drugs and other biomedical techniques on the horizon that hold out promise for more dramatic effects. One such technique is brain-machine interfacing, which some predict may allow human brains to be connected directly computers to improve our information processing abilities.

Over the last decade, biomedical enhancement has become the focus of one of the liveliest and widest-ranging debates in practical ethics. In 2003, President Bush’s Council on Bioethics published a report which raised a barrage of ethical concerns about biomedical enhancement. Two former members of the council, Michael Sandel and Leon Kass, even argued that biomedical enhancement is always ethically objectionable, and that biomedical technologies should be used only to combat disease. In response to claims such as these, a number of authors have come to the defence of biomedical enhancement, arguing that it would often be ethically permissible, or even desirable. Transhumanists argue that we should pursue certain kinds of biomedical enhancement even to the point that we are no longer recognizably human.

Those who universally object to biomedical enhancement may have public opinion on their side; the few surveys of the general public conducted to date have found considerable reluctance to countenance biomedical enhancement. However, it is unclear whether there are sound arguments to back up these concerns. One challenge is to explain how biomedical enhancement differs, in an ethically important way, from ordinary biomedical treatments, which are normally regarded as by-and-large unproblematic. Suppose two individuals have an IQ of 100, but the first previously had an IQ of 150, but then suffered a serious head injury, whereas the second has always had an average IQ. Increasing the IQ of the first person would conventionally count as a treatment, whereas increasing the IQ of the second would not. Yet it is not clear that there is any ethically significant difference here.

On the other hand, defenders of enhancement must confront the widespread assumption that biomedical enhancements are ‘zero-sum’ goods, conferring some advantages on those who use them, but also offsetting competitive disadvantages on those who remain unenhanced. They have sought to do this in various ways: some point out that widespread cognitive enhancements might increase the rate of scientific progress, thus benefitting almost everyone; others draw parallels with non-biomedical innovations like agriculture and information technology, suggesting that biomedical enhancements will increase overall human productivity, and can thus be seen as part of the story of human economic development; others present biomedical enhancement as a potential solution to human moral limitations like xenophobia and limited altruism; and others still outline how biomedical enhancements could improve the performance surgeons, pilots, jurors and others performing socially critical functions. 

Resources

  • Clarke, S., Savulescu, J., Coady, C. A. J., Giubilini, A. and Sanyal, S., Eds. (2016), The Ethics of Human Enhancement: Understanding the Debate. (Oxford: Oxford University Press) 
  • Savulescu, J. and Persson, I., (2012). Unfit for the Future: The Need for Moral Enhancement (Oxford: Oxford University Press).  Now also available in Portuguese (translated by Brunello Stancioli)
  • Savulescu, J., (2012) Decisiones peligrosas? Una bioética desafiante. Editorial Tecnos: Madrid (translation by Blanca Rodríguez López & Enrique Bonete Perales)
  • Savulescu, J., Ter Meulen, R., Kahane, G. (2011) eds. Enhancing Human Capacities. Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell (published 18/3/11)
  • Knopffler, N. and Savulescu, J., (Eds.) (2009). Der neue Mensch? Enhancement und Genetik, Verlag Karl Aber
  • Savulescu, J., Bostrom, N. (Eds.) (2009). Human Enhancement, Oxford: Oxford University Press

Book Chapters

  • Douglas, T., Earp, B. D. and Savulescu, J., (2017), 'Moral Neuroenhancement'. in K. Rommelfanger and L. Johnson, (Eds.)  Routledge Handbook of Neuroethics. (Routledge, New York) [open access]
  • Giubilini, A. and S. Sanyal, (2016), 'Challenging human enhancement'. in  S. Clarke, J. Savulescu, C. A. J. Coady, A. Giubilini and S. Sanyal, (Eds.) The Ethics of Human Enhancement: Understanding the Debate. (Oxford: Oxford University Press): 1, pp 1-24
  • Maslen, H., (2016), 'Towards an Ethical Framework for Regulating the Market for Cognitive Enhancement Devices'. in F. Jotterand and V.Dubljevic, (Eds.)   Cognitive Enhancement: Ethical and Policy Implications in International Perspectives. (Oxford: Oxford University Press)
  • Pugh, J., Kahane, G., and Savulescu, J., (2016), 'Partiality for Humanity and Enhancement' in S. Clarke, J. Savulescu, C. A. J. Coady, A. Giubilini and S. Sanyal, (Eds.)  The Ethics of Human Enhancement: Understanding the Debate (Oxford: Oxford University Press) 
  • Roache, R. and Savulescu, J., (2016), 'Enhancing Conservatism' in S. Clarke, J. Savulescu, C. A. J. Coady, A. Giubilini and S. Sanyal, (Eds.)  The Ethics of Human Enhancement: Understanding the Debate (Oxford: Oxford University Press)
  • Santoni De Seo, F., Faber, N., Savulescu, J. and Vincent, N., (2016), 'Why Less Praise for Enhanced Performance? Moving Beyond Responsibility-shifting, Authenticity, and Cheating, towards a Nature-of-Activities Approach'. in F. Jotterand and V.Dubljevic, (Eds.)   Cognitive Enhancement: Ethical and Policy Implications in International Perspectives. (Oxford: Oxford University Press)
  • Savulescu, J. and Kahane, G., (2016), 'Understanding Procreative Beneficence: The Nature and Extent of the Moral Obligation to Have the Best Child'. in L. Francis, (Ed.), The Oxford Handbook of Reproductive Ethics. (Oxford: Oxford University Press)
  • Savulescu, J. and Maslen, H., (2015), 'Moral Enhancement and Artificial Intelligence: Moral AI?'. in J. Romportl, E. Zackova and J. Kelemen, (Eds.) Beyond Artificial Intelligence: The Disappearing Human-Machine Divide. (Springer) pp 79-95
  • Savulescu, J. (2014). 'The Nature of the Moral Obligation to Select the Best Children'. in Future of Bioethics: International Dialogues. A. Akabyashi, Ed (Oxford: Oxford University Press): Part 1 Section B (4.5), pp 170-182
  • Douglas, T., (2013), 'Enhancement, Biomedical'. in H. LaFollette, (Ed.) International Encyclopedia of Ethics. (Wiley Blackwell)
  • Sandberg, A., Sinnott-Armstrong, W. and Savulescu, J., (2012), 'The Memory of Jurors: Enhancing Trial Performance'. in L. Nadel and W. Sinnott-Armstrong, (Eds.), Oxford Series in Neuroscience, Law, and Philosophy, (New York: Oxford University Press) pp 213-232.
  • Savulescu, J., (2012), 'Enhancing Equality' in K. Lippert-Rasmussen, M. Rosendahl and J. Wamberg (eds). The Posthuman Condition: Ethics, Aesthetics and Politics of Biotechnological Challenges, (Aarhus: Aarhus University Press): 184- 203
  • Douglas, T., Harding, C., Bourne, H. and Savulescu, J. (forthcoming 2011) ‘Stem Cell Research and Same Sex Reproduction’. In Quigley, M., Chan, S. and Harris, J. (eds) Stem Cells: New Frontiers in Science and Ethics, World Scientific Press
  • Kahane, G., Savulescu, J. and Ter Meulen, R. (2011), 'Preface', in  G. Kahane, J. Savulescu and R. Ter Meulen (Eds) Enhancing Human Capacities, (Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell)
  • Persson, I. and Savulescu, J. (2011), 'Unfit for the Future?  Human Nature, Scientific Progress, and the Need for Moral Enhancement', in  J. Savulescu, R. ter Meulen and G. Kahane (Eds) Enhancing Human Capacities (Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell)
  • Sandberg, A., Sinnott-Armstrong, W. and Savulescu, J. (2011), 'Cognitive Enhancement in Courts', in J. Illes and B. J. Sahakian (Eds) Oxford Handbook of Neuroethics, (Oxford: Oxford University Press)
  • Sandberg, A. and Savulescu, J. (2011), 'The Social and Economic Impacts of Cognitive Enhancement', in J. Savulescu, R. Ter Meulen and G. Kahane (Eds) Enhancing Human Capacities, (Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell) pp. 92-113
  • Savulescu, J. and Foddy, B. (2011) ‘Le Tour and Failure of Zero Tolerance: Time to Relax Doping Controls’. In Savulescu, J., Ter Meulen, R. and Kahane, G. (eds). Enhancing Human Capacities. Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell.
  • Savulescu, J., Sandberg, A. and Kahane, G. (2011) ‘Well-being and Enhancement’. In Savulescu, J., Ter Meulen, R. and Kahane, G (eds.). Enhancing Human Capacities. Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell.
  • Savulescu, J. and Sandberg, A. (2011) ‘The Social and Economic Impacts of Cognitive Enhancement’. In Savulescu, J., Ter Meulen, R. and Kahane, G (eds.). Enhancing Human Capacities. Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell.
  • Savulescu, J., Sandberg, A. and Kahane, G. (2011), 'Reasons to Feel, Reasons to Take Pills', in J. Savulescu, R. ter Meulen and G. Kahane (Eds.) Enhancing Human Capacities,Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell pp. 166-178
  • Bostrom, N., and Savulescu, J. (2009). ‘Introduction’. In Savulescu J, and Bostrom N. eds. Human Enhancement. Oxford: Oxford University Press. pp 1 – 24.
  • Foddy, B. and Savulescu, J. (2009), 'Ethik der Leistungssteigerung im Sport: Medikamenten- und Gen-Doping', in B. Schone-Seifert and D. Talbot (Eds.) Enhancement: Die Ethische Debatte,Paderborn: Mentis Verlag
  • Ranisch, R. and Savulescu, J. (2009), 'Ethics and Enhancement', in N. Knoepffler and J. Savulescu (Eds.) The new man? Enhancement and Genetics,Alber Verlag.
  • Savulescu, J. (2009), 'Enhancement and Fairness', in P. Healey and S. Rayner (Eds.) Unnatural Selection: The Challenges of Engineering Tomorrow’s People London: Earthscan pp. 177- 187
  • Savulescu, J. (2009), 'Genetic Enhancement', in H. Kuhse and P. Singer (Eds.) A Companion to Bioethics: Second Edition,Oxford: Wiley- Blackwell
  • Savulescu, J. (2009), 'The Human Prejudice and the Moral Status of Enhanced Beings: What do we Owe the Gods', in J. Savulescu and N. Bostrom (Eds.) Human Enhancement,Oxford: Oxford University Press pp. 211-250
  • Savulescu, J. and Foddy, B. (2009), 'To Gattaca and Beyond', in J. Healey (Ed.) Human Genetics: Ethics & Issues,Thirroul: The Spinney Press pp. 27-28
  • Savulescu, J. and Devolder, K. (2009). ‘Therapeutic Cloning is Moral’. In D. Haugen, Musser, S., and Lovelace, K. (eds). At Issue: The Ethics of Cloning. Greenhaven Press. pp. 57 – 72. Reprinted from: Devolder, K., Savulescu, J. (2006) The Moral Imperative to Conduct Embryonic Stem Cell and Cloning Research Cambridge Quarterly of Health Care Ethics doi:10.1017/S0963180106060026
  • Savulescu, J. (2008), 'Procreative Beneficence: reasons not to have Disabled Children', in J. Thompson and L. Skene (Eds.) The Sorting Society: The Ethics of Genetic Screening and Therapy,Cambridge: Cambridge University Press
  • Savulescu, J. (2007), 'Procreative Beneficence: Why We Should Select the Best Children', in R. Chadwick, H. Kuhse, W. A. Landman, U. Schuklenk and P. Singer (Eds.) The Bioethics Reader: Editors' Choice Malden: Blackwell Publishing pp. 434 - 446
  • Savulescu, J. (2007). ‘Beneficenza Procreativa e Disabilita’. In M. Ghisleni (ed) Bioetica Rivista Interdisciplinare. Piacenza: Casa Editrice Vicolo del Pavone. 15: pp. 56 – 64.
  • Savulescu, J. and Foddy, B. (2007), 'Ethics of Performance Enhancement in Sport: Drugs and Gene Doping', in R. E. Ashcroft, A. Dawson, H. Draper and J. R. McMillan (Eds.) Principles of Health Care Ethics,2nd, London: John Wiley & Sons Ltd pp. 511-520
  • Savulescu, J. (2007). ‘Autonomy, the Good Life, and Controversial Choices’. In Rhodes, R. Francis, L. P. and Silvers, A. (eds). The Blackwell Guide to Medical Ethics.(Oxford: Blackwell Publishing. Part 1, Chapter 1, pp. 17 – 37.
  • Savulescu, J. (2007). ‘Gene therapy, transgenesis and chimeras: is the radical genetic alteration of human beings a threat to our humanity?’ In Savulescu, J. (ed) In Quest of Ethical Wisdom: How the Practical Ethics of East and West Contribute to Wisdom. Oxford: Oxford Uehiro Centre for Practical Ethics. pp. 3 – 20.
  • Savulescu, J. and Foddy, B. (2006). ‘Good Sport, Bad Sport’ in Smyth, D., Brown, H., Judge, W., McCallum, C., and Pritchard, R., (eds). Live it Up 2: VCE Physical Education Units 3 and 4. 2nd Edition. Milton: John Wiley and Sons.
  • Savulescu, J. (2006). ‘Sex Selection: The Case for’. In Singer, P. and H. Kuhse (eds). Bioethics: An Anthology. Second Edition. Malden: Blackwell Publishing.
  • Savulescu, J. (2006), 'Genetic Interventions and the Ethics of Enhancement of Human Beings', in B. Steinbock (Ed.) The Oxford Handbook of Bioethics,Oxford; Oxford University Press pp. 516-535
  • Savulescu, J. (2006), 'Justice, Enhancement and Fairness', in W. Bainbridge and M. Roco (Eds.) Progess in Convergence: Technologies for Human Wellbeing,New York; New York Academy of Sciences pp. 321-338
  • Savulescu, J. (2005), 'Risk and Sport: Genetic testing and Boxing', in C. Tambourrini (Ed.) Genetic Technology in Sport,London and New York: Routledge pp. 136 - 146
  • Savulescu J. (2003). ‘The Public Interest in Embryos’. In Gunning J, Szoke, H (eds). The Regulation of Assisted Reproductive Technology Legislation. Aldershot: Ashgate. pp. 191-2002.

Special Edited Journal Issue

 

Forthcoming

Journal Articles

  • Foddy, B. and Savulescu, J. (2010), 'Time to Reevaluate Gender Segregation in Athletics?' British Journal of Sports Medicine, Vol: Published online August 2010 (forthcoming in print 2011)
  • Kahane, G. and Savulescu, J. (2010), 'The Value of Sex in Procreative Reasons', American Journal of Bioethics Vol: 10(7) pp. 22-24
  • Persson, I. and Savulescu, J. (2010), 'Moral Transhumanism', Journal of Medicine and Philosophy, Vol: 35(6): 656-669.
  • Savulescu, J. (2010) 'Human liberation: Removing biological and psychological barriers to freedom'. Monash Bioethics Review Vol:29(1) 2010
  • Savulescu, J., and Persson, I. (2010) 'Actualizable Potential, Reproduction and Embryo Research: Bringing Embryos into Existence for Different Purposes, or Not at All'. Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics, Vol: 19(1) pp 51-60
  • Mathews, D. J. H., Donovan, P., Harris, J., Lovell-Badge, R., Savulescu, J., and Faden, R., (2009) ‘Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Gametes: Truth and (Potential) Consequences’. Cell Stem Cell. 5(1) : 11-14.
  • Savulescu, J. (2009) 'Human Liberation: Removing Biological and Psychological Barriers to Freedom'. Centro Einaudi Journal, Biblioteca della Liberta no. 196.
  • Savulescu, J., and Kahane, G., (2009) 'The Moral Obligation to Create Children with the Best Chance of the Best Life', Bioethics 23 (5): 274-290. doi:10.1111/j.1467-8519.2008.00687.
  • Douglas, T. (2008). 'Moral Enhancement' Journal of Applied Philosophy 25(3): 228-245.
  • Goold, I. and Savulescu, J., (2008). ‘In Favour of Freezing Eggs for Non- Medical Reasons’. Bioethics. 23 (1): 47-58.
  • Liao, S. M., Savulescu, J. and Wasserman, D. (2008), 'The Ethics of Enhancement: ' Journal of Applied Philosophy, Vol: 25(3) pp. 159-161
  • Naylor, E., Wood, D. and Savulescu, J. (2008), 'Enhancement', Student British Medical Journal, Vol: March 2008
  • Sandberg, A. and Savulescu, J. (2008), 'Neuroenhancement of Love and Marriage: The Chemicals Between Us', Neuroethics, Vol: 1(1) pp. 31-44
  • Savulescu, J. and Persson, I. (2008), 'The Perils of Cognitive Enhancement and the Urgent Imperative to Enhance the Moral Character of Humanity', Journal of Applied Philosophy, Vol: 25(3) pp. 162 - 167
  • Savulescu, J., Goold, I., (2008). 'Freezing Eggs for Lifestyle Reasons'. American Journal Of Bioethics. 8(6):32
  • Savulescu, J., and Skene, L., (2008). 'The Kingdom of Genes: Why Genes from Animals and Plants Will Make Better Humans'. Open Peer Commentary on Baylis, F. ‘Animal Eggs for Stem Cell Research: A Path Not Worth Taking’. American Journal of Bioethics. 8:(12):35 ISSN: 1536-0075
  • Devolder, K., Savulescu, J. (2006). ‘The Moral Imperative to Conduct Embryonic Stem Cell and Cloning Research’. Cambridge Quarterly of Health Care Ethics. 15 (1): 7 – 21. doi:10.1017/S0963180106060026
  • Foddy, B., Savulescu, J.. (2006). 'Addiction and Autonomy: Can Addicted People Consent to the Prescription of Their Drug of Addiction?' Bioethics. 20 (1): 1-15 (Feb). DOI: 10.1111/j.1467-8519.2006.00470.x Second highest cited article in Bioethics from 2006-07.
  • Savulescu, J. (2006). 'Justice, Fairness and Enhancement'. In Sims Bainbridge, W. and Roco, M. C. (eds). Special Issue: Progress in Convergence: Technologies for Human Wellbeing. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. 1093: 321-338 (December). doi: 10.1196/annals.1382.021
  • Savulescu, J., Foddy, B. (2006). 'Autonomy, Addiction and the Drive to Pleasure: Designing Drugs and our Biology: A Reply to Neil Levy'. Bioethics 20 (1) : 21-23 (Feb). doi:10.1111/j.1467-8519.2006.00472.x
  • Savulescu, J., Hemsley, M., Newson, A. and Foddy, B. (2006), 'Behavioural Genetics: Why Eugenic Selection is Preferable to Enhancement', Journal of Applied Philosophy, Vol: 23 pp. 157-171
  • Savulescu, J. (2005), 'New Breeds of Humans: the Moral Obligation to Enhance', Reproductive Biomedicine Online (RBM Online), Vol: 10 pp. 1 - 9
  • Savulescu, J. (2005), 'Rational Morality, the New Genetics, and the Human Person', Bulletin of Death and Life Studies, Vol: 1 pp. 13 - 34
  • Savulescu, J. and Foddy, B. (2005), 'Comment: Genetic Test Available for Sports Performance', British Journal of Sports Medicine, Vol: 39 pp. 472
  • Savulescu, J. Foddy, B. (2005), Book Review of Sports Ethics: An Anthology, Br J Sports Med, 39: 686 - 687
  • Savulescu, J. and Fuscaldo, G. (2005), 'Spare Embryos: 3000 Reasons to rethink the significance of genetic relatedness', Reproductive Biomedicine Online (RBM Online), Vol: 110(2) pp. 164 - 168
  • Savulescu, J. (2001) 'Procreative Beneficence: Why We should Select the Best Children', Bioethics, Vol: 15 (5/6)
  • Levy, N., (2017), 'Is it ethical to swallow a morality pill?', CBC Radio 'The Current'(Canadian radio programme), cites 2012 paper by Terbeck, Kahane, Mctavish et al, 'Propranolol reduces implicit negative racial bias'
    listen | read transcript
  • Robillard, M., (2017), 'Enhancement of human abilities should be paired with moral education'.  The US Special Operations Command wants to create super-soldiers by pushing the human abilities beyond current limits. This is according to an agency announcement published last month. The agency is looking to enhance soldier’s abilities to tolerate pain, to recover from injuries and to adapt to hostile environments. SOCOM is hoping that academia and private sector will provide necessary support to help implement their objective. The Command is contemplating the use of nutritional supplements or even performance-enhancing drugs as a way of increasing human endurance. However, they assure that the issue of health safety is a priority in their efforts. Radio Sputnik discussed the issue with Dr. Michael Robillard, Postdoctoral Researcher on Collective Responsibility and Global Terrorism at Uehiro Centre for Practical Ethics, University of Oxford. He's also the author of the forthcoming book "Who Should Die?: The Ethics of Killing in War". Podcast interview on 'soldier enhancement' for US radio show Radio Sputnik (May). 
  • Douglas, T., (2010), 'Promise and Pitfalls of a Superhuman Future'. The Australian (8 January)
  • Foddy, B. (2012). 'The Clever Pill', Public debate at the Wellcome Collection, London (9 Feb)
  • Foddy, B. (2012). Interview for 'Monocle 24' radio regarding 'The Clever Pill' (10 Feb)
  • Sandberg, A, (2012), Interview for 'The What If Machine'. Available on GameSpot and Youtube, Anders comments ethical and practical issues of engineering 'super-soldiers' by genetically modifying humans.
  • Sandberg, A., (2012), Talk with Mark Edwards, BBC, on enhancement. (19 April)
  • Sandberg, A., (2012), Interview by email with Emma Young, Cosmos, on military applications of neuroscience. (29 March)
  • Sandberg, A., (2012), BBC Oxford radio interview on “the six million dollar man” and cyborgs. (12 March)
  • Sandberg, A., (2012), Interview for talkSPORT radio about cyborgs and immortality. (1 March)
  • Sandberg, A., (2012), Interview for Top Sante magazine about cognition enhancing drugs. (28 February )
  • Sandberg, A., (2012), Television interview for ARTE about transhumanism. (9 February)
  • Sandberg, A., (2012), Interview with James Carrigan, BBC, about bionics (19 January)
  • Sandberg, A., (2012), Radio discussion on BBC Night Waves with Angie Hobbs and Emily Sargent about athletic enhancement. (17 May )
  • Sandberg, A., (2012), Interview/talk recording for Wellcome Collection Superhuman Exhibition, on human enhancement. (16 May)
  • Sandberg, A., (2012), Interviewed by Estonian science journalist at TEDx on cognitive enhancement. (4 May)
  • Savulescu, J. and Persson, I., (2012), 'Moral Enhancement', Philosophy Now, Vol: 91 (popular article, freely available).
  • Savulescu, J., (2012), 'Technology and Human Enhancement', The Digital Human, BBC Radio 4 (22 October). 
  • Savulescu, J., (2012), 'Designer Babies Debate'. ABC Radio National Broadcast of Designer Babies Debate (IQ2) from Sydney (16 October)
  • Savulescu, J., (2012), 'Debate on Designer Babies'. Today Programme, BBC Radio 4 (18 August)
  • Savulescu, J., (2012), 'Interview on Designer Babies'. ABC Radio (9 October)
  • Savulescu, J., (2012), 'Designer Babies'. SBS Insight (Australian TV) (9 October)
  • Savulescu, J., (2012), 'Should We Decide What Breed of Humans to Create?' The Punch (9 October)
  • Savulescu, J., (2012), 'Interview on Designer Babies'. ABC 702 Radio (19 September)
  • Savulescu, J., (2012), 'There’s Nothing Nazi, or Nasty About Genetic Selection'. The Punch (18 September)
  • Savulescu, J., (2012), 'Debate on Designer Babies'. ABC Radio (17 September)
  • Savulescu, J., (2012), 'Designer Babies'. Talk Radio Europe (Spain) (31 August)
  • Savulescu, J., (2012), 'Designer Babies'. BBC Radio Oxford (28 August)
  • Savulescu, J., (2012), 'Genetically engineering 'ethical' babies is a moral obligation, says Oxford professor '. The Telegraph (16 August)
  • Savulescu, J., (2012). Debate: Enhancing Morality, with John Harris, chaired by Vassili Christodoulou, How The Light Gets In Festival, Hay on Wye (19 June)
  • Savulescu, J., (2012). Summer on Radio National Science - Immortality... Reality?ABC Radio National (22 January)
  • Douglas, T., (2011), '‘De onde vem o mal?’ [Where does evil come from?’]'. Galileu (Brazilian science and technology magazine) (July)
  • Douglas, T., (2011), 'The Ethics of Morality Altering Drugs'. Radio Interview, CBC Radio (Canada) (21 April)
  • Savulescu, J., (2011), 'The Moral Obligation to Improve’'. Radio 3 Free Thinking Festival. Broadcast on Radio 3 November 15. The Sage, Gateshead.
  • Savulescu, J., (2011). Medicine, Genetic Technology and Immortality, Panel Session organised by RiAus. Chaired by Paul Willis, RiAus Director, with panellists Fiona Wood and Brad Partridge, Adelaide Festival of Ideas, Adelaide (8 October)
  • Savulescu, J., (2011). Podcast interview discussing ‘designer babies’ to launch Bio-Ethics Bites, a new series of 10 interviews with leading influential figures tackling controversial subjects arising out of recent scientific advances. (1 June)
  • Savulescu, J., (2011), 'Moral Enhancement'. Audio interview by Nigel Warburton (18 May)
  • Sandberg, A. (2011), BBC5 radio interview on cognitive enhancement (9 November)
  • Sandberg, A. (2011), TV interview in BBC Newsnight on cognitive enhancement (9 November)
  • Sandberg, A. (2011), 'The dope on mental enhancement', Interviewed by Susan Watts for New Scientist (11 November) http://www.newscientist.com/article/dn21157-the-dope-on-mental-enhancement.html
  • Sandberg, A. (2011), Participated in online chat about the film documentary 'Transhuman' (30 June) www.transhumandoc.com/discussion/
  • Sandberg, A. (2011), Premiere of Dutch documentary 'Transhuman', De La Mar Theatre Amsterdam (26 June) http://www.transhumandoc.com/news/nieuwsitem/artikel/anders-sandberg-is-coming-to-amsterdam/
  • Sandberg, A. (2011), Radio interview for Radio Cambridgshire on cognitive enhancement (20 March )
  • Savulescu, J. (2011). Moral Enhancement. Audio interview by Nigel Warburton (May)
  • Savulescu, J. 14 February 2011, interviewed on 2UE News Talk morning programme, on the widely-followed Sydney Talk Radio in response to Sunday Herald Sun article below.
  • Savulescu, J. 14 February 2011, interviewed on ‘The Steve Price Breakfast Program’, on the popular Melbourne Talk Radio network, in response to Sunday Herald Sun article below.
  • Savulescu, J. 7 February 2011, invited article in the Guardian in response to ‘How should the state regulate reproductive technologies?’ Part of the Guardian’s ‘The Question’ series.
  • Savulescu, J. (2011), A leading Australian ethicist has advocated genetically screening embryos to create a smarter society of superior "designer babies" with higher IQs. Sunday Herald Sun (13 February) http://www.heraldsun.com.au/ipad/only-breed-smart-babies-ethicist/story-fn6bfkm6-1226005105129
  • Savulescu, J. (2011), Interviewed on ‘The Current’, Canadian Broadcasting Corporation (CBC) current affairs programme, discussing the ethics of plastic surgery for teens and children. (18 May)
  • Douglas, T., (2010), 'Promise and Pitfalls of a Superhuman Future'. The Australian (8 January)
  • Savulescu, J. (2010), Feature article interview on human enhancement in ‘Sekret Firmy’ , high-profile Russian business magazine (November )    http://www.kommersant.ru/Doc/1526010
  • Savulescu, J. (2010), 'Bioethics and Human Enhancement: an Interview with Julian Savulescu',Feature article in Dilemata No. 3 (June)    http://www.dilemata.net/revista/index.php/dilemata/article/viewArticle/32/47
  • Savulescu, J. (2010), interviewed by Nigel Warburton discussing ‘designer babies’ for upcoming Bio-Bites series of 10 interviews in which leading thinkers on bioethics tackle controversial subjects arising out of recent scientific advances. Interview to be broadcast shortly on Philosophy Bites and several other internet websites. Other Bio-Bites interviewees are likely to include Baroness Mary Warnock, Leon Kass (Advisor to President Bush’s Council on Bioethics), Michael Sandel (of Harvard University, former Reith Lecturer and author of The Case Against Perfection) and John Harris (Lord Alliance Professor of Bioethics).
  • Savulescu, J. (2010), Ethical Aspects of Enhancement. Interview broadcast live on ‘The Naked Scientists: Science Radio’, an award winning BBC weekly radio programme run by physicians and researchers from Cambridge University (21 November)
  • Savulescu, J. (2010), Appeared on ‘Forum’, renowned BBC World Service radio programme. Special recording at the Science Museum, London as part of its ‘Late’ series, discussing how our identity is shaped by genetics and moral imperatives to enhance. (4 July)
  • Savulescu, J. (2010), Business Voice. Interviewed about social and business impacts of biomedical enhancements.
  • Savulescu, J. 16 September 2010, interviewed on ‘One Plus One’, highly-respected national ABC News 24 television show, by programme host Jane Hutcheon
  • Savulescu, J. August 2010, ‘Change Makers: Meet eight Innovators, Inspirers and Thinkers who want to shape a different world’, AFR BOSS magazine on leadership and management published in the Australian Financial Review, feature article as one of the eight individuals highlighted.
  • Savulescu, J. August 2010, ‘Enhancing the Lives of children: How far should we go?’, Abortion Review, quoted in article on Royal Society of Medicine Conference
  • Savulescu, J. 14 July 2010, broadcast of interview by Richard Dawkins for BBC Radio 4 ‘The Age of the Genome’, very high-profile three part series presented by Dawkins about the science of genomes and resulting ethical issues http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/b00ssmcp
  • Savulescu, J. (2010), Guest on Talk Radio Europe ‘Maurice Boland: The Mid Morning Show’ discussing a new genetic test which can give individuals their odds of reaching the age of 100 (8 July)
  • Savulescu, J. (2010), Will you live to 100? Scientists pinpoint 19 markers that tell you if you will have a long life. Daily Mail (2 July) http://www.dailymail.co.uk/sciencetech/article-1291242/That-genetic-test-predicts-live-100-Scientists-pinpoint-19-markers-long-life.html
  • Savulescu, J. 7 July 2010, interviewed on ‘Newshour’, high-profile BBC World Service radio programme, concerning drugs in sport, with a focus on cycling.
  • Savulescu, J. 3-4 July 2010, ‘Welcome to the New Ice Age’, Weekend Australian, interviewed for the article and extensively quoted.
  • Savulescu, J. 14 June-1 July 2010 led the University of Oxford Online Debate proposing the motion: Performance enhancing drugs should be allowed in sport: raise the bar or draw the line?’ Published Opening Statement (14 June), Update 1 (17 June), Update 2 (24 June) and Closing Statement (1 July). The debate proved very popular and the public posted comments throughout the debate which closed with a public vote (5-9 July). www.ox.ac.uk/debates
  • Savulescu, J. ‘Academic focus: Professor Julian Savulescu’, featured in ‘Oxford in Westminster’, June 2010
  • Savulescu, J. 1 June 2010, interviewed on ‘Radio Planet – The World We Will Live In’, Radio Romania, about artificial life and other research interests.
  • Savulescu, J. 16 February 2010, ‘Banning Performance-Enhancing Drugs Neither Ensures Fair Play Nor Protects Athletes’ Health’, The Vancouver Sun. Reports on J. Savulescu’s research on the use of performance-enhancing drugs in sport.

YOUTUBE: The Practical Ethics Video Series makes the most important and complex debates in practical ethics accessible to a wide audience through brief interviews with high profile philosophers in Oxford.  Video interviews on this and other topics can be found on our YouTube channel.

Savulescu, J., (2017), Podcast for The Conversation, 'Speaking with: Julian Savulescu on the ethics of genetic modification in humans', What if humans are genetically unfit to overcome challenges like climate change and the growing inequality that looks set to define our future? (17 July).  http://theconversation.com/speaking-with-julian-savulescu-on-the-ethics-of-genetic-modification-in-humans-78249

Staicu, L. and Socaciua, E., (2017), 'The rise of postmedicine: some ethical concerns regarding biomedical technology; How Drug Patents Might Lead to Disincentives for Moral Bioenhancement', Erasmus Exchange Public Event: Double Seminar on Biomedical Technology and Moral Bioenhancement (30 May)

Savulescu, J., (2016) 'No pain, no praise: motivational enhancement and the meaning of life'.  MT16 Oxford-Valencia Neuroethics Workshop, Oxford Martin School (14 November) 

Gyngell, C., (2015), ''The case for genetically engineered babies' and accompanying podcast 'Should we genetically engineer humans?'', The Guardian (1 May). Article | Podcast

Savulescu, J., (2014). 'Making nice: Julian Savulescu and the case for moral bioenhancement'.  Philosopher and bioethicist Julian Savulescu joins host Peter Mares for a conversation on the potential for moral bioenhancement through direct brain stimulation, pharmacology or genetics, and the ethical implications of such interventions.  Up Close is an online, audio talk show of research, opinion and analysis, presented in English, from the University of Melbourne, Australia. Audio (MP3) |  Transcript

Erler, A., (2013), Sleep and Opportunity for Well-being (paper co-authored by David Birks and delivered at HT13 Uehiro Seminars in Practical Ethics) http://media.philosophy.ox.ac.uk/uehiro/HT13US_ERL.mp3

Savulescu, J., (2013). Pills that improve morality. TEDxBarcelona. (23 July)

Savulescu, J., (2012), Making Better Babies, Pro and Con. A Debate with Rob Sparrow http://www.arts.monash.edu.au/bioethics/--downloads/better-babies-debate-october-2012.mp3

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