Toby Ord is a James Martin Research Fellow with the Programme on the Impacts of Future Technology, but also contributes towards the FHI's research aims. His FHI research interests include both theoretical and practical ethics, with a focus on questions concerning the big picture. He is currently investigating the topic of moral uncertainty: the study of how to act when we are unsure of the relevant moral considerations. This is a much neglected area of theoretical ethics with many strong practical implications. He is also exploring a number of questions regarding global poverty, such as the extent of our personal responsibilities and how we should prioritise within aid spending. Finally, he has an ongoing interest in questions about future technologies and global catastrophic risks.
Tuyls, K, Pérolat, J, Lanctot, M, Ostrovski, G, Savani, R, Leibo, JZ, Ord, T, Graepel, T, Legg, S
We introduce new theoretical insights into two-population asymmetric games allowing for an elegant symmetric decomposition into two single population symmetric games. Specifically, we show how an asymmetric bimatrix game (A,B) can be decomposed into its symmetric counterparts by envisioning and investigating the payoff tables (A and B) that constitute the asymmetric game, as two independent, single population, symmetric games. We reveal several surprising formal relationships between an asymmetric two-population game and its symmetric single population counterparts, which facilitate a convenient analysis of the original asymmetric game due to the dimensionality reduction of the decomposition. The main finding reveals that if (x,y) is a Nash equilibrium of an asymmetric game (A,B), this implies that y is a Nash equilibrium of the symmetric counterpart game determined by payoff table A, and x is a Nash equilibrium of the symmetric counterpart game determined by payoff table B. Also the reverse holds and combinations of Nash equilibria of the counterpart games form Nash equilibria of the asymmetric game. We illustrate how these formal relationships aid in identifying and analysing the Nash structure of asymmetric games, by examining the evolutionary dynamics of the simpler counterpart games in several canonical examples.
Female, Game Theory, Games, Experimental, Humans, Male, Models, Statistical
Moral uncertainty about population axiology
Greaves, H, ord, T
Journal of Ethics and Social Philosophy: online peer-reviewed journal of moral, political and legal philosophy
Making fair choices on the path to universal health coverage.
Ottersen, T, Norheim, OF, World Health Organization Consultative Group on Equity and Universal Health Coverage
Bull World Health Organ
Consultants, Decision Making, Humans, Interprofessional Relations, Universal Health Insurance, World Health Organization
<p>Peter Singer argues that middle-class members of affluent countries have an obligation to give away almost all their income to fight poverty in the developing world. Others, however, argue that this view is <italic>too demanding</italic>: it is asking more of us than morality truly requires. This chapter proposes a weaker principle, the very weak principle of sacrifice: Most middle-class members of affluent countries ought, morally, to use at least 10 percent of their income to effectively improve the lives of others. This principle is not very demanding at all, and therefore the “demandingness” objection has not even pro tanto force against it.</p>
Rationing and Rationality: The Cost of Avoiding Discrimination
Beckstead, N, Ord, TDG
Eyal, N, et al
Inequalities in Health: Concepts, Measures, and Ethics