Mackenzie Graham is a Research Fellow in Neuroethics, at the Oxford Uehiro Centre for Practical Ethics, and the Wellcome Centre for Ethics and Humanities. Mackenzie received a PhD in Philosophy from The University of Western Ontario, in London Canada, and was previously a Post-Doctoral Associate at the Brain and Mind Institute at Western. His research interests are in moral philosophy and neuroethics, particularly in the challenges of evaluating the well-being of individuals who are behaviourally non-responsive as a result of severe brain injury. His project investigates how can we assess well-being in patients whose means of communication are severely limited or non-existent, what actions can and should we take to promote their well-being, and questions pertaining to their moral status.
He has also written about clinical equipoise, disclosure of research results in functional neuroimaging research, and accidental awareness during general anaesthesia.
Using Neuroimaging to Detect Covert Awareness and Determine Prognosis of Comatose Patients: Informing Surrogate Decision Makers of Individual Patient Results.
Graham, M, Doherty, CP, Naci, L
Seminars in neurology
Robust prognostic indicators of neurological recovery are urgently needed for acutely comatose patients. Functional neuroimaging is a highly sensitive tool for uncovering covert cognition and awareness in behaviorally nonresponsive patients with prolonged disorders of consciousness, and may be applicable to acutely comatose patients. Establishing a link between early detection of covert awareness in acutely comatose patients and eventual recovery of function could have significant implications for patient prognosis, treatment, and end-of-life decisions. Because functional neuroimaging of acutely comatose patients is currently limited to the research context, ethical guidelines for disseminating a patient's individual research results to clinical teams and surrogate decision makers are needed. We propose an ethical framework composed of four conditions that can guide ethical disclosure of individual results of neuroimaging research in the acute care context.
Using neuroimaging to uncover awareness in brain-injured and anesthetized patients
GRAHAM, M, Owen, A, Weijer, C, Naci, L
Frontiers in Bioscience
Can they Feel? The Capacity for Pain and Pleasure in Patients with Cognitive Motor Dissociation